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Last Updated:- 2020-06-11
Early childhood is known as the foundation age of life, not only because it is the basis of all learning and experience in later life, but also because of the child's psychological ability (Hurlock, 1978). Neuropsychologists have found that young children have more associations than adults (Vishton, 2014). They also have other forces which adults do not have (Montessori, 1959). At this point, children are experiencing rapid growth both physically and mentally, forming close emotional links with parents and establishing relationships with peers, young and older children, and recognizing the physical, social and cultural aspects of society. Montessori points out that children are thinking more about cultural issues such as grammar, etiquette and grace at this level (Joosten, 2013). In addition, they gain control over their hand gestures, muscles, and eye and hand coordination, which will lead to great dancers, magicians in the future (Montessori, 1989).
Training at such a critical level is vital and has a forbearing impact on future learning. Children living in conditions without stimulation have been found to have smaller brains (UNESCO Bangkok 2007:3). It is therefore important to provide an atmosphere that promotes the child's behavior at this level. In addition, research indicates that early childhood education increases student focus, commitment, class engagement and discipline in higher education. It also reduces the drop-out rate and raises the number of children completing secondary schooling. In addition, early childhood care and education allows older girls to continue their studies, freeing them from the burden of caring for their younger siblings.
In India, early childhood education is provided by government, non-governmental and private organizations. The Government's Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) catering to the health, hygiene and educational needs of children up to 6 years of age (Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India 2009). In addition, there are several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) providing early childhood education, such as Mobile Crèches (MC-Mobile Creches, 2015), Sakshi's Early 1 Childhood Care and Development, and so on. (Sakshi 2013) apart from private schools that cater to the needs of wealthy and middle-class families.
Despite its value, childhood education has been plagued with a range of problems and challenges. Early childhood education has not received its share of support either from the government or from educationalists in India. The Government of India has not included children under the age of six in its ambitious 2009 Act on the Right of Children to Education, which demonstrates its attitude towards early childhood education (Government of India 2009). The reason for not incorporating early childhood education to the act already provided by the Ministry of Women and Child Welfare for Integrated Child Development Services is ludicrous as "only 19.4 million out of 158.79 million children receive ICDS education" (Gupta 2009). In addition, facilities in any ICDS Anganwadi are below par, and teachers are under-trained and underpaid.
India has also shown slow progress in the adoption of the UN Millennium Declaration, which focuses on the health, nutrition and education of young children relative to other member countries (National Focus Group 2006: iv). The source of all these issues is early childhood education, which is not accepted as part of the main stream of education (National Focus Group 2006).
Most educators find early childhood education simply a preparation for formal schooling, which raises the likelihood of a downward extension of formal schooling. However, early childhood education is neglected by educational researchers, as there are very few early childhood education studies (Verma & Mohite 1997).
In India, the distribution of preschools is uneven. Urban areas are filled with pre-schools with one in every lane, as opposed to rural and tribal areas where there is not even a single pre-school. Many of the preschools in urban areas have been operating in garages that lack the requisite amenities, such as playgrounds, sports facilities and other facilities. Schools with strong services are costly and are not beyond the scope of the average middle class.
Larry Prochner points out that preschool in India is a 'significant business' for many multinational corporations and industry tycoons like Birlas, Tatas, Ambanis (Prochner 2002:446). The large investment and business element of higher profits made these schools focus on satisfying their customers (parents) rather than the needs of early childhood and its growth. Schools are also pressurized to appeal to the parents. Moreover, the lack of a policy on early childhood education intensifies the problem and, consequently, the schools respond to the needs of parents who are primarily studying 3 Rs – Reading, Writing and arithmetic.
On the other hand, early childhood educators are the lowest paying in the education hierarchy and are regarded by both the education department and community. Subsequently, parents make them trivial and treat them with disdain. And do the worst, early childhood educators, under-training renders them unable to persuade parents or supervisors about the children's developmental needs. As a result, they are required to follow the orders of the Management despite the little information they have gained about developmentally acceptable activities in the education of young children (Sahu 2012). As a result, parents have little confidence in early childhood teachers and assign tutors to their children. It is known that children are crowded with classes that 82% of children do not have the opportunity to travel. Worst of all, children below 4 are force-fed because there is no room for breakfast (Sahu 2012).
Worse, there is a serious shortage of teachers in early childhood education. The problem is severe in early childhood education relative to other rates, with schools hiring untrained teachers and offering in-service training for teachers or setting up their own teacher training centers (Verma 2012).
Globally, as Chan & Chan put it, early childhood classrooms are small and classes are big (2003). It's more like preschools in metropolitan cities. When asked what would discourage them from using developmentally acceptable methods, the teachers talked about the immense size of the class, which is often over 70 (Hegde, 2009, p. 374). These large classes limit teacher and student contact and thus the interpersonal relationship is unsatisfactory (Chan & Chan 2003:9).
However, because there is no regulation or clear curriculum for early childhood education, there is a stress on 3R learning. Bhagirathi Sahu, (2012:59) states that 90 per cent of schools expect children to take English dictation; 50 per cent of schools expect children to write Matras; 40 per cent to 50 per cent of schools allow children to do basic addition and subtraction. In addition, 25 per cent of preschoolers are highly formal and expect children to learn English and Hindi alphabets, and 5 per cent expect preschoolers to write essays. In most schools, the entire 1st Standard Syllabus was taught to 4 and 5 year olds.
As a result, children are burdened with academic pressures during early childhood. VenitaKaul notes that "a lot is taught but nothing is learned or understood" due to the oppressive burden of overbearing curricula, admission tests and standard one-size-fits all assessments to assess the skill, homework and impact of English medium education (Kaul&Sankar 2009:39). VenitaKaul also warns of books published by private publishers that are detrimental to children's health (Kaul&Sankar 2009) (Sahu 2012).
In addition, preschools have become feeder schools for some of the well-known formal schools and are focused on training children to pass the admission exams (Prochner 2002). Since the children have to take the entrance exam and, as a matter of respect for the parents, they force the preschools to focus on learning, i.e. 3Rs. In addition, they research and recommend preschools that are academically focused and emphasize Learning 3Rs. At the end of the day, each blames the other for the curriculum load.
The latter is also due to the misconception of the quotations, "learning is life-preparation." This quotation has its roots in the industrial age, where children must be trained for life, that is, to become workers in future industries. That needs consistency in following the chief, keeping to the schedule, and sitting at a position. AlisterMcConville points out, however, that the 3Rs in the industrial world were Reading, Wroughting and Arithmetic. Wroughting here means sorting out items that have been that. Furthermore, the world today is no longer an industrial world, but the world of the Internet, meaning that the future needs to change. Life is therefore too glorious to rely on a future work which is both superior and far-reaching. It is the way one leads life, instilling confidence, 4 curiosities, cooperation, communication, imagination, dedication and craftsmanship in oneself (Mroz 2015). Thus, as John Dewey notes, "education is a method of living and not of planning for future life" (Dewey 1897:7). Likewise, the saying "catch when young" is often faulty where children are overwhelmed with truth, in the fear that they will not know when they reach the point.
Furthermore, very few preschoolers obey the ideals of Rousseau, Froebel, Montessori and so on. Most schools follow a blend of their own and suit the curriculum, which is in fact contradictory to each other (Klein 2008:6). Moreover, children have no room for constructive learning. Even so-called educational toys are targeted at enhancing learning and achieving 3Rs (Sahu 2012). Moreover, the style of play structured in preschools is often directed by teachers (Miller &Almon 2009:18) and offers less space for free choice and free play.
The goal of early childhood education is not standardized. The goal of ECCE in India is to provide health and hygiene for children under 3 years of age and to prepare for formal education for children between 3 and 6 years of age. This shows mastering the 3 Rs (Kwon, 2002). Countries such as Spain stress liguistic, scientific, technical, ethical and judgmental, cultural and artisanal competencies along with awareness of the physical environment, obligation towards the natural world and care and security of individual and collective wellbeing as part of the ECE (Agut, Ull, &Minguet 2013), Hong Kong encourages the creation of positive attitudes towards learning, social, etc. It stresses a loving, healthy and stimulating atmosphere and proposes a thematic approach to teaching (Chan & Chan, 2003). Learning to Read is a highly commendable skill in both countries (Agut, Ull, &Minguet, 2013).
Early Childhood education is relevant because it lays the foundation for lifelong growth. Early childhood education, however, faces a range of obstacles and barriers.
The first problem of early childhood education is that parents are unaware of the children's developmental needs and their role in the growth of children. Children are not given the opportunity to play while young at home and are limited from what they do under the pretext of defense. Parents who are capable of understanding and fulfilling the physical needs of children such as food, shelter, clothing and the like are unable to recognize their need for play, the need to use their hands for purposeful work, the need for attention and the need for freedom (Montessori 1966:1-2).
The key explanation for this deficiency is that children do not have a broad selection of words in their own language to ask what they want. When they show their need to conduct a specific language operation, they are called stubborn. For example, when a child is one year old, he's just started walking and he wants to run. For that boy, running is an activity that helps him master his walking ability and, unconsciously, he is attracted to running. Whereas, the mother, being a nurse, is worried that the child may fall and get hurt. So, she's going to take the kid and hold him / her in her waist. The more the child wants to get down and loosen the hold, the tighter the grasp, the more it doesn't encourage him / her to get down. The child cries, kicks, bites, and then the mother gives in to the child's brawls and lets the child get down. Subsequently, the child runs with his / her stumbling movements and walks as long as he / she needs to master the process of walking and returning. In the meantime, the child can slip, get hurt, but no one can do the job of mastering walking other than himself. It's true of all the skills, such as eye-hand coordination, whether it's pouring water from jug to glass or threading beads, that the kid has to do it on his own, and no amount of encouragement makes this job any easier. Much of the time, parents do things on behalf of their children in order to save them from hard work.
Unfortunately, parents are not in a position to meet their emotional needs, because they do not realize that children need such a thing. Which makes matters worse is that they don't know what they don't know. The oppressed have no language to express what they need, the oppressor does so not out of rage, but out of love. Worse, the oppressors that parents are stopping children from playing because of affection. It's a two-fold problem, therefore. The latest research by VenitaKaul, Chaudhary & Sharma (2015: 22-23) shows that while the percentage of children enrolled in early childhood education has increased, the parent insists on teaching children 3Rs and has not yet recognized the value of children's developmental needs and the need to improve health and hygiene habits.
The second question is 'centerity' in early childhood education. Attempts are also made to wash away or raising the responsibility of the infant in the name of 'child-centered instruction' or 'family-centered' education. Brighouse (2009) points out that it is the person who determines the child's position and calls the child focused, the parent oriented, and so on. However child-centered a theory of education may be, it is still made up of the adult mind. It is still adults who determine if the child is focused, and however child-centered the education is, it is still adult-centered or parent-centered because it has been selected and determined by adults (p.47). At the receiving end, the child does not have the vocabulary to appeal, to lift his interests and to argue against the decisions made by the adults on his behalf. Education is one such decision made by adults for the well-being of the infant. Despite its good intentions, education is not what the kid has been looking for. It is abnormal for a human child to go to school. None of the animals or humans of our order have to attend classes. The notion of teaching the infant to read and write is a solely adult conception that is imposed upon the infant. For which much of the child's health and security has been compromised. The child is made to spend most of his / her waking hours inside the four walls of a building in the name of education and forced to make friends with children he / she has not chosen (Brighouse, 2009, p. 47). Montessori (1966, p. 101) calls it 'the martyrdom of the child.' This misery is seen at all stages of education, starting in early childhood.
The third issue of early childhood education is that there is no scope for play in the classroom. Private schools with a decent infrastructure do not have any indoor play sports. In that regard, neither the government nor the private administration of early childhood education offers any activity-based learning or learning materials to children (Kaul, Chaudhary, & Sharma, 2015, p. 48). Many Anganwadis children are taught to sing and dance. As a result, most villagers find singing rhymes, songs themselves as a 'play way system' (Prochner, 2002, p. 445). In 1987, Adarsh Sharma, as quoted by Larry Prochner, identified the typical Anganwadi.
“All Anganwadis by and large looked alike, in their setup. Faded charts of birds, animals, fruits, alphabets and numbers, adorned the walls. In most cases, these were stuck far above the eye level of children. …Their daily routine included teaching of numbers through rote method. The Anganwadi was turned into a primary school, the concept of non-formal preschool education was obviously not followed or implemented as envisaged in this scheme…” (2002, p. 443).
Thirty years later, he says, the Anganwadis improved very little. The faded maps are replaced by fading and chipped paintings of fruit, plants, flowers, numbers, and so on. The ground, painted to the ceiling. Rote learning doesn't change a bit, starting with the letters of the alphabet, the numbers, the names of the animals, the cars, the flowers, and so on. They're taught without fail. In general, there are no play events in either government, private or other experimental preschools. None of them invest in outdoor play equipment, even though adequate room was available. Teachers are not seen to use the outdoor setting and children the outdoor room for unguided outdoor play (Kaul, Chaudhary & Sharma 2015: 48).
The fourth issue is the shortage of teachers in early childhood education. Because early childhood education is perceived to be a low work, (Tarrant, Greenberg, Sharon Lynn &Kauerz 2011: 142 very few people go to early childhood education. Many willing to enter the market want a casual career where they work half a day and don't spend much of their time (Flynn 2011: 35).
Fifth problem is the difficulty of evaluating the consistency of the ECCE because it is difficult to calculate the outcome of the ECCE. Generally, the ECCE is measured by the success of children in primary school and by their overall achievement. Certain metrics include the physical environment, the standard of preparation and qualifications of teachers, the student teaching ratio and the goals of the curriculum and the consistency of the education process (Global Monitoring Report 2005: 82). Generally, the assessment is done after the child completes early childhood program and steps into the next stage of development, i.e. in the primary school (UNESCO 2004: 82). Hence, it is difficult to evaluate the quality of early childhood education.
The sixth issue in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is that rising child obesity is a growing problem in India. It is not only well-to-do children who are vulnerable to obesity, but also low-income families where underweight is a major concern (Ranjani, et al. 2016: Conclusion). It is evident from their study that overweight has steadily risen from 9.7% in 2001 to 13.9% in 2010. The combination of overweight and obesity followed a similar trend from 15.9% in 2001 to 16. 3% in 2001 – 2005 then increased to 17.4% in 2006 – 2010 and finally to 19.3% among children and adolescents in India.
The Obesity Foundation of India (2009) lists five causes of obesity. Apart from the climate, heredity, family, eating habits and socio-economic status, lack of physical activity is a major cause of obesity. As the size of the playgrounds decreased, the operation of the children also decreased. Twenty-thirty years ago, there were no playgrounds in town and the children used to play on the sidewalks. Today, it's very unusual to see children on the highways, too. They're either tied to a TV or a machine, making them settle down for hours to come. The lack of physical activity arising from sitting for a while is the primary cause of childhood obesity.
There is no space for active learning in children in Anganwadis or private nurseries (Kaul, Chaudhary & Sharma 2015: 51). Most centers think singing rhymes, songs are 'joyful learning.' Teachers find that singing, pasting and filling workbooks are part of a child-centered curriculum. Those who understand the importance of movement and play blame the immense class size and congested classrooms for not providing activity or play-based learning in their classrooms and for resorting to chalk-and-talk methods.
Other issues, such as family problems such as marital strife, divorce and single parenting, concern the sensitive years of childhood. The animosity and anger of the spouses frequently turn to the child, and most of the time the child is an object of hate. Young children are vulnerable to sexual exploitation because they can not articulate what is happening to them. Another area of concern is Online child pornography. Kids of this age are vulnerable to danger and easy targets for predators. In this regard, they are delicate flowers which need to be carefully protected.
Scholars, academics, neuropsychologists and psychologists have common opinions on the importance of early childhood. However, there is no common view on the period of early childhood. Predominantly, the period of early childhood depends on the age at which the infant begins formal education, rather than on the physical and psychological features of early childhood. There is also a significant difference in the period of early childhood from place to place, from birth to six years from birth to eight years.
The idea of early childhood education is as new in the Western world as in the Eastern world. The idea of early childhood education became popular during the Industrial Revolution, when women who had been home bound until then started working in factories away from home. Although they worked in the factories all day long, there were difficulties caring for children between the ages of 3 and 6. This specific age group was too old to be in the day care facility provided by the factory and too young to be sent to kindergarten. This condition has resulted in either small children accompanying older children to school or older children leaving school to take care of their younger siblings. Later, schools launched new blocks to fit young children and created a program to train them for formal schooling. Some missionaries have established Infant Schools in colonized countries, similar to those in Europe. These were the first centers for early childhood education (Lascarides&Hinitz 2011:78). This may have contributed to the belief that early childhood education would train children for formal schooling.
As a consequence, studies apply to early childhood in the light of the admission of the child to a formal school. Therefore, early childhood is considered the 'preschool age.' Thus, early childhood is considered to be the period from birth to the age at which a child enters formal education, i.e. 6 years in India and 8 years in Western countries (Trawick-Smith 2014; Morrison G. S. 2012). Froebel's kindergartens were built for students from 3 to 7 years of age. In the United States, children have two years of 'Preschool' from 3 to 5 years of age and two years of 'Kindergarten' before entering the First Phase of formal schooling. They will be 8 years old when the children started formal schooling (Morrison G. S. 2012: 301).
However, attempts are being made not to apply to early childhood in the light of formal education. The National Focus Group therefore uses institutional names between 0 and 8 years of age. This divided the eight years into three stages: 0 to 2 +, 3 to 5 + and 6 to 8 +. Kids aged 0 to 3 years are part of an organization called Early Childhood Care and Development (ECED), children aged 3 to 6 years are referred to as Early Childhood Education (ECE), which includes preschools, nurseries, kindergartens and so on. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) have much wider goals. In addition to caring for children aged 0 to 6 years, ICDS also caters to the needs of pregnant and lactating mothers and teenage girls (NCERT 2006; Aggarwal & Gupta 2013).
Though neither the State nor the Central Education Boards have any age restrictions on early childhood education, the State Education Boards have their age restrictions on first-class admission to formal schools. For eg, the R.T.E. (Right to Education) Act circular insists that the minimum age for first standard admission as of 31 May should be between 5 and 6 1⁄2 years (Department of Public Instruction 2015). A similar document from Tamil Nadu notes that the child should have completed five years by 31 July and that there is no upper age limit (School Education Department 2008).
To make matters more complicated, some Indian educators find early childhood to be the first 6 to 8 years of age (Kaul& Shankar 2009: Aggarwal & Gupta 2013) and others 0 to 6 years of age (Gupta S. M. 2009; Shukla, 2012). Renowned educator Kemerman, (2007) begins her report pointing out that early childhood is the age at which compulsory education starts.
It is important at this stage to consider the significance of age 6. Philosophers across history have remembered the golden age of '6-7.' The graph below shows the amount of accumulated brain development relative to age. It is important to remember that the rate of growth at birth is 0 while at 1 1⁄2 years the growth is almost 50% and at 2 1⁄2 years 85 per cent of brain development occurs. The brain growth rate continues to increase dramatically until 6 years of age (Kaul, Mathur, &Kohli, 2013).
Child Brain development graph
Compared to the above, Maria Montessori offers a better interpretation and explanation of the stages of development. According to Montessori as recited by Standing (1978), the word 'development' differs from 'development.' Although growth is physical, development is psychological. A child may grow up physically, but it may be underdeveloped mentally. There mentally refers to the capacity to monitor a wide variety of tasks, such as walking, talking, making decisions of one's own, and so on, characteristics that require freedom. As a result, for Montessori, growth is reaching successive stages of independence.
Thus, early childhood is a time not connected to the age defined by the authority to enter preschool, but to the age defined by definition. This is, from birth to the point at which all milk teeth emerge, i.e. about 6 years of age. Apart from the length, how early childhood children are viewed often varies in various cultures. This understanding affects the policy and value of the state given to early childhood.
Early Childhood Education Care and education services are delivered across four platforms in India – government, non-government, private and individual or family.
Government services are mainly for the vulnerable and the elderly. There are as many as 130 services in various departments of the Government of India and ministries aimed at developing children between 0 and 6 years of age. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was introduced in 1975 to achieve the aim of education for everyone and to eliminate malnutrition. ICDS is the largest early childhood program in the world with nearly 80 million children (Ministry of Women and Child Development, 2013; Prochner, 2002: 443). According to the 2012 Indian Children's Statistics Handbook, there are currently 6779 ICDS projects underway. In addition to these, 7073 additional projects have been approved. The number of Anganwadi employees also increased to 1,370,718 as of 31 December 2011 (2013, p. 291). ICDS supports infant and maternal wellbeing, nutrition and pre-school education.
The Department of Women and Child Development overstates that early childhood care and pre-school education are the cornerstone of the ICDS system and offer the most "joyful way of behaving." Studies, however, show that play-by-play games are practically absent from pre-school ICDS programs (Mohite& Bhatt 2008:314). We have inadequate services, poor personal and daily treatment, no language and thinking skills and development of social skills. ICDS has very little provision for physical learning assistance (Chopra 2012: 164-167). A research by Adarsh Sharma, (2002: 443-444) as quoted by Prochner, notes that all Anganwadis had faded birds, animals, vegetables, alphabets and numbers on the walls well above the children's eye level. Teaching was often based on a rote process. The Anganwadi staff normally sit on a chair too high to make contact with the eyes of the child.
In addition to Integrated Child Development Services, SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA) and the National Elementary Girl Education Program (NPEGEL) have also sponsored the establishment of Early Childhood Care and Education Centers attached to primary schools in some districts (National Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Policy 2013). Rajiv Gandhi National Crèches Scheme has recently been launched for working mothers' babies. This scheme provides for sleeping facilities, health care, supplementary nutrition, immunization, pre-school education, and so on. There are 22038 nurseries across the country.
Non-governmental entities play an significant part in delivering early childhood education. They're working with tribal, migrant and rural children. Many NGOs run crèches, while others run crèches like Ruchika, SEWA, NutanBal Sangha and so on. Have their own children's services. While NGOs such as Bodh ShikshaSamiti in Rajasthan, IKP Balwadis in Andhra Pradesh and KaShreni are affiliated with government schools in Assam that have a pre-school curriculum (Kaul, Chaudhary, & Sharma 2015: 6), Pratham has introduced a school-readiness curriculum in addition to Balwadis. NGOs are financed by the State, national and foreign donors.
While the government supports disadvantaged families, private companies cater to well-to-do communities. There are seven groups of private organizations: 1.Independent nursery, 2. Family nurseries, 3. Private nursery or school practice, 4. Montessori Children's House 5. Pre-schools attached to approved schools and 6. Chain of pre-schools, 7. Preschools operated by educational institutions Independent preschools: Independent preschools are owned and managed by a single person. The purpose of an independent preschool is either income or benefit. The example of an independent school is the Beanstalk International Preschool in Baguiati, Kolkata. Preschools also grow through high school. Example: The Vidyanjali Academy for Learning, which began with preschool, has reached the tenth level every year by adding a class. Many times a well-developed school may extend its business to other surrounding areas and open a branch, but it remains under the same management. Such schools are called the College Zone. Some schools are established as business enterprises at various locations, which are chains of preschools run by different or the same management. They are referred to as chains of preschools. Examples of the chain of schools are Teeny Beans International which provide preschool curriculum solution to preschool chains, Podar Jumbo Kids, Eurokids and so on.
Daycare centers for working mothers' babies. Some businesses offer child care and day-care services to the mothers of their workers in their factories.
Private nursery schools and play schools train the child for admission to regular schools. They have not had to register until recently, but since 2014 it has been mandatory for nursery schools to register because of the amount of sexual assaults that have taken place in Bengaluru. But for this purpose, these schools are training children for admission to regular schools. Much importance is given to reading, writing and speaking in English. They have limited infrastructure and less room for improving financial, physical, artistic and linguistic skills. Training is rote memorization, and the instructor is introduced. They have textbooks, assignments in addition to daily standardized exams (Chopra, 2012: 164-171).
There are also private schools that follow the teachings of Maria Montessori. Schools are affiliated with the Montessori Indian Center or the Montessori Indian Association or the Montessori International Organization. Educate children from 2 1⁄2 to 6 years of age. Montessori schools have a range of Montessori tools for children to play and work with. Activities are self-selected and random. The Montessori approach adopts a non-directive teaching system. Via resources, children learn to read and write. Since there is no official body that recognizes Montessori schools, it is very likely that schools use the Montessori name without following the theory or procedure.
These are recognized schools run by private organizations that educate children from preschool to tenth or twelfth grade. These schools concentrate on teaching 3R children. The school follows a stringent admission process, such as a parent interview, a child interview and a examination. We have a strong environment, good personal care and routine, a chance to improve language and thinking skills, social skills growth and ample physical learning support. However, there is not enough space for the development of fine and gross motor skills and artistic growth (Chopra 2012:164-171).
The fourth category has recently become very popular in India. It's a chain of nursery schools. As Larry Prochner (2002:446) points out that early childhood education in India has become 'a serious industry,' industry people like Tata and Birla are joining the sector and setting up a branch at every corner of the city and town. While the school chain has impressive logos, tag lines and photos, some parents claim that the founder of the stand-alone school gives a lot of time and attention to children (Kumari 2013: para 5). VenitaKaul (2013) points out that preschools in India are 'teaching stores' with little concern for the child's developmental needs. Some are strongly 3R-oriented and so 'counter-productive' that they might be deemed 'miseducation.' Non-Governmental organizations have high-quality, but limited, pre-school education.
In addition to these, there are Laboratory Nursery Schools operated by universities on campuses, especially in the Department of Child Development. The curriculum of these schools is creative and developmental. A study conducted by Neelima Chopra (2012:170 – 171) showed that learning in these schools was play-based, involved, teacher-initiated, play-based, and most importantly, there were no textbooks, homework or exams. They are process-oriented rather than content-oriented. Such services may either be paid or paid on a nominal basis. Chopra's study shows that the teachers in these preschools are involved and aggressive, while the principals are supportive. Experimental preschools do not practice rote learning, rather children learn actively by play, so there has been no rote learning. There were no text books and H.W. None of the studies (2012).
Apart from the above, there is another group that is gaining popularity. That's the home schooling. Home Schooling is a situation where a child is educated at home by parents instead of attending some kind of education. Parents decide and create the curriculum that best suits their children (Basham, Merrifield, & Hepburn 2007:6). Home Schooling is typically a option for middle class families. Neither the poor nor the rich are seeking to train their children at home. The main justification for home schooling is when parents feel that the public school has not been able to improve the character or values of the children, or when the school system is not competitive enough, or when the school has a bad learning atmosphere, or when the child is unable to travel because of any disease, or when the work of the parent is transferable in nature, when there is no education. Home schooling is not as common in India as it is in Western countries. However, a few parents in India see that early childhood children would be too young to be sent to kindergarten, preferring home education to teach simple alphabet.
As early as 2002, Prochner called pre-school a 'poor business' in India. The study reveals that 41% of schools are franchise colleges, operating on a business model. The business model creates an organization and enhances the product.
Unfortunately, schools are a service industry that is not regulated by any regulatory body. Because there is no oversight, there is a high risk of being avaricious. Pre-schools, instead of focusing in children's needs, invest extensively in education, such as offering air-conditioned classrooms and bus services, fancy digital wall and floor machines, and so on. Even the curriculum is a reminder of the promising future of children, boasting of several different approaches that have different values. Schools, in an attempt to provide extra attention, assign more teachers than is required.
Parents are unaware that any external support is harmful to the child's growth.
As a result, the curriculum of these pre-schools is largely academic and there is a lack of scientific play.
In India, Montessori, Waldorf and conventional methods are common preschool methods. There are several schools that advertise Reggio Emilia's curriculum, but there is not enough proof to show that they obey the whole of Reggio Emilia. The kindergarten method is corrupted to such an degree that the teachers are too incompetent to recall who began the kindergarten process. Forest School and High Scope preschool approaches are not used in India. Nursery education has started for economically deprived communities, which can be compared to the Anganwadis of today. In Anganwadi, the Anganwadi staff are engaged in a variety of other activities besides schooling, so the only way to teach is to sing songs. As a result, children from Anganwadi enter the Nalikali system for six years without much training. The Nalikali teacher is not in a position to support the children in Nalikali, nor should they follow any other method, and there is finally no space for play.
Published By:- Teeny Beans